形式为: n. + -ed/-ing形式; n. +不定式; n. +介词短语; n. +形容词; n. +副词;
The girl staring at him(= As the girl stared at him), he didn't know what to say.
Time permitting(= If time permits), we will go for an outing tomorrow.
The problems solved(= As the problems were solved), the quality has been improved.
Her glasses broken(= Because her glasses were broken), she couldn't see the words on the blackboard.
He is going to make a model plane,some old parts to help.
They said good-bye to each other,one to go home, the other to go to the bookstore.
An air accident happened to the plane,nobody alive.
So many people absent, the meeting had to be called off.
He put on his sweater ,wrong side out. 他把毛衣穿反了。
The meeting over, they all went home. 会议一结束，他们就都回家了。
The boy goes to the classroom,book in hand. 那男孩手里拿着书去教室。
Mary was sitting near the fire,her back towards the door.玛丽靠近火炉坐着，背对着门。
His first shot failure，he fired again．
Two hundred people died in the accident, many of them children.
二、- with 引导的独立主格:与主句逻辑关系紧密
形式为: with + n. + -ed/-ing形式; with + n. +adj.; with +n. +介词短语
with ( without)+宾语（名词/代词）+宾语补足语，宾语通常由名词或代词充当，但代词一定要用宾格。
The girl hid her box without anyone knowing where it was.
Without a word more spoken, she left the meeting room.
The kid feels excited with so many places of interest to visit.
The boy was walking, with his father ahead.
He stood at the door, with a computer in his hand. 或He stood at the door, computer in hand.
With his son so disappointing, the old man felt unhappy.
在with (without) 的复合结构中，多数情况下with 能省略，但without 不能省略。
形式为:句子 +复数名词结尾 , each +介词短语/形容词短语/名词短语/-ing形式/-ed形式
Under the restructuring, the huge organization that operates the company's basic businesses will be divided into five groups,each with its own executive
There being +名词（代词）
There being nothing else to do, we went home. 没有别的事可做，我们就回家了。
There being no further business, I declare the meeting closed. 没有再要讨论的事了，我宣布散会。
It being +名词（代词）
It being Christmas, the government offices were closed. 由于圣诞节的缘故，政府机关都休息。
It being a holiday, all the shops were shut. 由于今天是假日，所有商店都关门了。