小学英语知识点:量词
◎ 量词的定义
量词:
用来表示人、事物或动作的数量单位的词。
如:a bottle / glass of,a cup of,a piece of,a pair of
◎ 量词的知识扩展
用来表示人、事物或动作的数量单位的词。
如:a bottle / glass of,a cup of,a piece of,a pair of
◎ 量词的特性
量词词组特点:
特点一:
英语量词词组所表示的数或量,大致可归纳为四种类型,即定量、不定量、大量和少量。
1.表示定量的量词词组,譬如:
a couple of(两个、一对)
a couple of days,
a couple of players,
a couple of times;
a cupful of(一满杯)
a cupful of jelly,
a cupful of water;
a portion of(一份/客)
a portion of duck,
a portion of roast beef.
2.表示不定量的量词词组,譬如:
a majority of(大多数/大半)
a majority of opinions,a majority of votes;
an atom of(一点)
an atom of food,an atom of truth;
a spell of(一阵/一段时间)
a spell of fine weather,
a spell of coughing.
3.表示大量的量词词组,譬如:
a flood of—a flood of ink(洋洋大篇),
a flood of tears(泪如泉涌);
a heap of—a heap of earth(一堆泥土),
a heap of customers(许多顾客);
a mountain of—a mountain of debts(债台高筑),
a mountain of difficulties(困难重重).
4.表示少量的量词词组,譬如:
a drop of—a drop of fever(有点热度),
a drop of dew(一点露水);
a particle of—a particle of feeling(一丝感情),
a particle of dust(一点灰尘);
a shadow of—a shadow of doubt(一点怀疑),
a shadow of freedom(一点自由).

特点二:
有些数量词组修饰可数名词,有些数量词组修饰不可数名词,还有些则两者均可修饰。
1.修饰不可数名词的量词词组,譬如:
a bit of—a bit of English(一点英语),
a bit of good advice(一些好意见),
a bit of interest(一点兴趣),
a shred of—a shred of evidence(一点证据),
a shred of cloth(少量布),
a shred of reputation(一点声誉),
a sheet of—a sheet of glass(一块玻璃),
a sheet of water(一片汪洋)。
2.修饰可数名词的量词词组,譬如:
a cluster of—a cluster of flowers(一簇花),
a cluster of spectators(一群观众),
a cluster of bright stars(闪烁群星),
a string of—a string of pearls(一串珠子),
a string of curses(连续不断的咒骂),
a string of excuses(一连串借口),
a scram of—a scram of mosquitoes(一群蚊子),
a scram of geese(一群鹅),
a scram of children(一群孩子)
3.修饰(不)可数名词的量词词组,譬如:
a body of—a body of bees(一群蜜蜂),
a body of cold air(一股冷空气),
a body of facts(许多事实),
a block of—a block of ice(一大块冰),
a block of flats(一幢公寓),
a block of houses(一排房子),
a chain of—a chain of ideas(一系列想法),
a chain of accidents(一连串事故),a chain of proof(一连串证据)。

特点三:有些数量词组的搭配是固定的,而有些搭配则比较灵活。
1.搭配固定的量词词组,譬如:
a barrel of—a barrel of beer(一桶啤酒),
a barrel of crude oil(一桶原油),
a basket of—a basket of eggs(一篮鸡蛋),
a basket of apples(一篮苹果),
a line of—a line of trees(一行树),
a line of poetry(一行诗)。
2.搭配较灵活的量词词组,譬如:
a piece of—a piece of paper(一张纸),
a piece of furniture(一件家具),
a piece of equipment(一台设备),
a round of—a round of spirit(一巡酒),
a round of diplomatic talks(一轮外交谈判),
a round of toast(一片烤面包)
a bar of—a bar of chocolate(一块巧克力),
a bar of soap(一条肥皂),
a bar of light(一束光)。
◎ 量词的知识点拨

常见量词词组:
1. 一般性的表示个数的量词:
这一组中主要有piece, bit, item, article 等词,但piece具有独特的地位,在使用其他词的地方一般都可使用piece 代替之。比如:
piece a piece of meat/paper/bread/music/information/furniture/machinery, etc. 一片肉/一张纸/一片面包/一首曲子/一条信息/一件家具/一台机器等
bit a bit of news/wood/advice/trouble, etc. 一条消息/一块木头/一条建议/一件麻烦事等
item an item of news/crime/program/business, etc. 一条新闻/一宗罪行/一个项目/一笔生意等
article an article of export/ furniture/ clothing/ luggage, etc. 一宗出口/一件家具/一件衣服/一件行李等
2. 以形状表示个数的量词:
bar a bar of chocolate/candy 一块巧克力/一块糖
bunch a bunch of flowers/grapes/ keys 一束花/一串葡萄/一串钥匙
cake a cake of soap/ice一块肥皂/一块冰
cluster a cluster of stars/flowers/animals一群星/一束花/一群动物
comb a comb of bananas 一串香蕉
drop a drop of rain/ blood 一滴雨/一滴血
ear an ear of corn/wheat一棒玉米/一穗麦子
flight a flight of stairs/arrows/sparrows一段楼梯/一阵箭雨/一群麻雀
flock a flock of workmen/criminals/boys 一群工人/一伙罪犯/一群男孩
head a head of cabbage/cauliflower/sheep 一头卷心菜/一块花菜/一头羊
lump a lump of sugar/coal/clay一块糖/一块煤/一块土
spiral a spiral of mosquito incense 一盘蚊香
slice a slice of meat/bread/beef一片肉/一片面包/一块牛肉
swarm a swarm of bees一群蜜蜂
bevy a bevy of beauties/girls/ladies 一群美人/一群女孩/一群女士
gathering a gathering of friends一帮朋友
clump a clump of trees一丛树林
pack a pack of rascals/wolves一群流氓/一群狼
3. 表示容积的词:
bottle a bottle of ink/milk/wine 一瓶酒/一瓶牛奶/一瓶葡萄酒
bowl a bowl of rice/porridge 一碗米饭/一碗粥
pail a pail of water 一桶水
glass a glass of beer 一杯啤酒
cup a cup of tea 一杯茶
handful a handful of soil 一抔土
spoonful a spoonful of oil 一汤匙油
mouthful a mouthful of snow 一口雪
truckload a truckload of steel 一卡车钢材
a packet of cigarette一包烟
4. 表示行为动态的量词:
fit a fit of laughter 一阵笑声
peal a peal of thunder 一阵雷声
flash a flash of light 一道闪电
display a display of force 一番武力展示

◎ 量词的教学目标
1、明确量词概念。表示人、事物或动作的单位的词,叫做量词。
2、了解量词在句子中的运用。
3、在一定的语言环境中会正确运用量词。
◎ 量词的考试要求
能力要求:掌握/应用
课时要求:4
考试频率:必考
分值比重:10
◎ 量词的所有试题
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